There aren’t many things that can be used as a cleaning agent and a coveted cooking component simultaneously. The French phrase “vin aigre,” or sour wine, is where the name “vinegar” originates. It was used in Babylon as early as 5000 BCE, not merely for cooking but also as a medicinal, preservative, and beverage to increase energy and foster wellness. According to legend, vinegar was found after forgotten wine fermented and turned sour after being stored for several months.
Acetic acid and water are combined to create vinegar through a two-step fermentation process. First, yeast consume any liquid derived from a plant source, such as fruits, whole grains, potatoes, or rice, and feed on the sugar or starch therein. It ferments into alcohol. After being exposed to oxygen and the acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter, the alcohol continues to ferment for several weeks or months, turning into vinegar. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration mandates that vinegar include at least 4% acetic acid, while regularly used vinegars may contain up to 8%. Vinegar contains trace amounts of vitamins, mineral salts, amino acids, and polyphenolic chemicals in addition to acetic acid, which is the ingredient that gives it its characteristic acidic and pungent smells and odours . The flavours can be acidic, salty, or sweet. Balsamic vinegar, for example, can ferment for up to 25 years.
Vinegars and Health
Early documents from China, the Middle East, and Greece mention the use of vinegar as a medicine, including as a cough suppressant, a digestive aid, and an antibacterial balm to bandage wounds. Today, vinegar is frequently promoted as a universal remedy for everything from minor illnesses to chronic conditions. To be clear, there is no scientific evidence to date that suggests vinegar is a successful cure for any of these ailments. However, certain animal studies and few human studies have indicated a health advantage from vinegar, which has increased its popularity in the general public’s eye.
Below, we examine some of the most well-known vinegar-related health claims and the scant scientific evidence supporting them.
Diabetes Can vinegar lower sugar levels? Those who have diabetes or prediabetes are curious to learn the solution. With tiny sample sizes of 12 or fewer people, a few human investigations have yielded contradictory results. [2-5] Taking vinegar (in amounts ranging from 2-4 tablespoons daily) significantly decreased glucose and insulin levels after meals, according to a meta-analysis of 11 research trials with a total of 5–12 participants that looked at people with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, or neither.  In a pilot research involving 14 people with type 2 diabetes, vinegar supplementation twice daily with meals was observed to lower fasting glucose levels after 12 weeks, but not post-meal glucose levels. 
Due to the many study designs, it is challenging to compare these results: healthy people against those with insulin resistance or diabetes; when and how much vinegar was consumed; the amount of carbohydrates in meals; and a diet with a high versus low glycemic index. The levels of insulin or blood sugar may have increased or decreased as a result of these factors acting independently.
According to one idea, vinegar prevents the enzymes needed to break down carbohydrates, preventing them from being digested. This delay in digestion may result in a lower post-meal blood sugar surge or a stronger feeling of fullness. Other possible actions include reducing the liver’s synthesis of glucose or helping insulin-resistant individuals use their insulin more effectively.  However, due to a lack of reliable research, the American Diabetes Association does not advocate using vinegar for glycemic management. Before providing recommendations, more long-term trials with a more consistent study design are required.
Loss of weight If vinegar delays digestion and stomach emptying, this may result in a sensation of fullness after eating, which may lead one to consume less food. Other hypotheses propose a direct impact on the metabolism of fat. According to a study on animals, acetic acid shielded rats from accumulating belly fat and prevented excessive liver fat storage.  A drink containing 0, 15, or 30 mL of apple cider vinegar was administered to 155 Japanese participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study who were tracked for 12 weeks and had a body mass index of 25 to 30 (considered obese in Japan).  At 12 weeks, the findings revealed a slight but significant reduction in body weight (2-4 pounds) and body mass index (0.4-0.7 points). There is, however, inconsistent evidence to support a benefit when examining the entire body of research on vinegar and body weight, which mostly consists of animal studies. There are conflicting results regarding how vinegar affects appetite and stomach emptying. [1,5]
Cancer Polyphenols, plant compounds with antioxidant properties that may shield cells from oxidative stress, a potential promoter of tumour growth, are present in vinegar. Studies on cells and mice indicate that vinegar may stop the development of cancer cells or cause tumour cells to die. There isn’t enough human data, though, to support the use of vinegar in treating this illness.  Whatever the case, vinegar enhances the flavour of other plant foods like fruits, vegetables, and whole grains that contain polyphenols and are part of a balanced diet that helps prevent disease.
Gastrointestinal Surprisingly, although being a product of fermentation, vinegar does not contain the good bacteria found in probiotic foods. But other vinegars, like apple cider vinegar, which also includes pectin, may function as a prebiotic, or a source of food for good bacteria.
In order to cure gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, vinegar has been used as a home treatment. According to one idea, consuming vinegar may boost stomach acid and enhance digestion if GERD is brought on by a condition where there is not enough acid in the stomach. According to a different notion, vinegar can aid in lowering blood pH to create a more acidic environment that obliterates dangerous microorganisms in the gut. These theories are not supported by any published research. Additionally, eating too much strong vinegar at once may cause negative effects like stomach distress and oesophageal inflammation. Due to its extreme acidity, tooth enamel may be damaged.
Low in calories and nutrients is vinegar. One tablespoon of vinegar can have between 2 and 15 calories, depending on the type. The ones with the fewest calories, like distilled vinegar, have no nutritional value, while others have traces of nutrients. Most vinegars are sodium- and sugar-free, making them the perfect flavouring for foods for people on special diets. Not all, though, are calorie-free. In order to know exactly what you are getting, it is vital to check the nutrition information label and ingredients list on some vinegars because they sometimes contain additional sugar and/or a blend of grape juice and wine vinegar.
How To Use
- A rich dish gains balance and brightness from the vinegar’s acidity or sourness. Popular culinary essentials like mayonnaise, ketchup, marinades, and salad dressings contain it.
- Foods can have their textures altered by vinegar. When used as a marinade to tenderise meats and fish, it destroys the chemical structure of protein. By mixing vinegar with milk, cottage cheese can also be made. The acid in vinegar divides the liquid whey from the solid curds in milk.
Pickling is a preservation technique that uses vinegar to extend the shelf life of perishable items by eradicating microorganisms. Pickling is the process of preserving food by soaking it in a brine solution that contains vinegar, water, salt, and sugar.
- There are numerous varieties of vinegars on the market. Specialty vinegars may also be sweetened with fruit juices or may have additional herbs like basil, clove, or cinnamon. The following are typical kinds and examples of how to utilise them:
- White Distilled: A distilled alcohol that has undergone fermentation is created, frequently from fermented grains. Be aware that grains only play a secondary role in the production of alcohol, which is subsequently distilled to create a water solution of almost pure ethyl alcohol, and then fermented to create a solution of almost pure acetic acid (in water). The absence of savoury, aromatic aromas in wine vinegars can be attributed to this procedure. Because the resulting acidity does not change the colour of fruits and vegetables, it is perfect for pickling. It’s also a well-liked, affordable option for cleaning.
- Made from fermented grape must, balsamic vinegar (whole pressed grapes). In contrast to other vinegars, this thick, dark brown vinegar could have a little sweeter and mellower flavour. It can be cooked into a thick sauce known as a “reduction” that is then drizzled over fruit or ice cream, or it can be used in marinades and salad dressings.
- Fermented rice is used to make rice. A softer, sweeter flavour with a moderate acidity. used in Asian-inspired foods such stir-fries, pickled veggies, and sushi.
- Red or white wine is used to make wine. has a harsh, acidic flavour that changes according on the wine used. used to cook meat and fish as well as in salad dressings and marinades.
- The liquid from crushed apples is used to make apple cider. Compared to other types, it has less acidity and a slight apple flavour. used in marinades, salad dressings, sweeter meals, and salads.
- Malt: Made from unhopped, fermented beer. has a powerful acidic flavour that makes it a good choice for sauces or dips.
To add flavour to vinaigrette dressings and marinades, a vinegar base (often wine vinegar) is mixed with fruit purees or herbs like rosemary or sage.
What happens if you regularly consume vinegar?
Let’s be clear: Vinegar tastes awful. Vinegar really doesn’t taste that wonderful on its own unless it is blended with some form of oil for a salad dressing or is used in a recipe. Additionally, if you consume vinegar every day, you may have nausea. Although it “may help suppress hunger,” apple cider vinegar “may also trigger sensations of nausea, particularly when consumed as part of a drink with a terrible flavour,” according to Heathline.
Furthermore, according to research from the University of Surrey’s Nutritional Sciences Department, “Vinegar consumption promotes satiety whereas orosensory stimulation alone does not, and that these effects are largely attributable to poor tolerability post ingestion eliciting sensations of nausea.” Since vinegar isn’t normally a tasty beverage, regularly consuming it may make you feel really sick, which isn’t exactly the desired result. As the study discovered, vinegar may lower your appetite, but clearly not for the better.
What health advantages does vinegar have?
Beyond only enhancing the flavour of your favourite foods, white vinegar may also have beneficial health consequences.
For thousands of years, people have used vinegar for medical purposes. The acetic acid content of vinegar is the subject of the majority of current research on its health advantages.
The potential health advantages are not necessarily unique to white vinegar because acetic acid is present in many varieties of vinegar.
Vinegar may have a number of health advantages, including:
- Blood sugar control: According to certain human research, consuming vinegar may result in lower post-meal insulin and blood sugar levels (2, 3).
- Weight management: According to some studies, drinking vinegar may make you feel more satisfied by slowing down how quickly your stomach empties. This could result in less calories being consumed, which could result in weight loss (4).
- Lower cholesterol: Studies on animals have revealed lower cholesterol in vinegar-treated mice. In the end, further investigation is required to establish a causal connection between vinegar and cholesterol (5).
- Antimicrobial: Because vinegar has antimicrobial characteristics, it may be helpful in treating physical conditions such ear infections, warts, and nail fungus. Additionally, it works well as a topical treatment for burns and skin infections (6, 7, 8).
Due to its acetic acid concentration, white vinegar may have substantial health advantages, such as the ability to control blood sugar, help people manage their weight, lower their cholesterol, and possess antibacterial qualities.
Is regularly consuming vinegar healthy?
- Remember to wait at least 30 minutes after drinking vinegar before cleaning your teeth.
- You can use a straw to drink the vinegar to keep it from getting into touch with your teeth.
- Moderate vinegar consumption
- Avoid consuming more than 30 mL of vinegar each day to be safe.
- Typically, a daily intake of 15 to 30 mL is advised.
- It is advised to begin with a lower dose—5 mL for the first few days—and then gradually increase it after observing how your body reacts.
- Even after consuming 10 to 15 mL of vinegar, some people may still have digestive problems.
- To determine whether vinegar suits you, it’s a good idea to start with lesser dosages.
Does vinegar help you lose abdominal fat?
Apples are first chopped or crushed, then mixed with yeast to turn their sugar into alcohol. The alcohol is then fermented into acetic acid by the addition of microorganisms.
Although some producers substantially speed up the process so that it just takes a day, traditional apple cider vinegar production typically takes around a month.
It is an organic substance with a pungent smell and sour taste that is also referred to as ethanoic acid. The Latin word for vinegar, acetum, is where the word “acetic” originates.
The amount of acetic acid in apple cider vinegar is around 56%. Water and trace amounts of other acids, such malic acid, are also present (2).
Apple cider vinegar has only three calories and almost no carbohydrates per tablespoon (15 ml).
In summary, a two-step fermentation method is used to make apple cider vinegar. The primary active ingredient in vinegar is acetic acid.
Acetic acid is a short-chain fatty acid that breaks down in your body into acetate and hydrogen.
The acetic acid in apple cider vinegar may aid in weight loss in a number of ways, according to several animal studies:
- reduces blood sugar levels: In a rat research, acetic acid enhanced the liver’s and muscles’ capacity to absorb sugar from the blood (3).
- Acetic acid lowers insulin levels via reducing the insulin to glucagon ratio in the same rat study, which may help in fat burning (3).
- increases the enzyme AMPK, which increases fat burning and lowers the creation of fat and sugar in the liver, in rats exposed to acetic acid in another study (4).
- Reduces fat storage: Acetic acid or acetate treatment of obese, diabetic rats prevented weight gain and boosted expression of genes that decreased liver and belly fat accumulation (5, 6).
- Fat-burning genes significantly increased in a study of mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with acetic acid, which reduced the accumulation of body fat (7).
- Reduces hunger: According to a different study, acetate may inhibit the brain regions in charge of controlling hunger, which may result in less food being consumed (8).
Although the outcomes of the animal trials are encouraging, further human study is required to verify these effects.
Summary Acetic acid may aid fat loss in a number of ways, according to animal research. It can improve blood sugar and insulin responsiveness, decrease hunger, promote fat burning, and decrease fat storage.
By encouraging satiety, apple cider vinegar may help people consume less calories (9, 10).
One hour after eating a high-carb dinner, participants in one short trial of 11 persons who took vinegar experienced a 55% lower blood sugar response.
Additionally, they were able to consume 200275 less calories the remainder of the day (10).
Apple cider vinegar has been demonstrated to reduce the rate at which food leaves your stomach in addition to its appetite-suppressing effects.
Taking apple cider vinegar with a starchy meal considerably slowed stomach emptying in a different small study. As a result, there were greater feelings of fullness and lower levels of insulin and blood sugar (11).
Delay in stomach emptying, often known as gastroparesis, is a typical consequence of type 1 diabetes. Because it is impossible to forecast how long it would take for blood sugar to rise after a meal, timing insulin with food intake becomes tricky.
Taking apple cider vinegar with meals may make gastroparesis worse because it has been demonstrated to lengthen the time food remains in your stomach (12).
Due to delayed stomach emptying, apple cider vinegar helps enhance fullness. This might naturally result in consuming fewer calories. For some people, this may aggravate their gastoparesis.
According to the findings of one human investigation, apple cider vinegar has remarkable benefits on body fat and weight (13).
In this 12-week study, 144 obese Japanese adults were given a daily vinegar dose of either 1 tablespoon (15 ml), 2 tablespoons (30 ml), or a placebo beverage.
They were instructed to limit their alcohol consumption but otherwise maintain their regular diet and activity levels for the duration of the trial.
The following advantages were generally experienced by people who ingested 1 tablespoon (15 ml) of vinegar daily:
- Loss of weight: 2.6 pounds (1.2 kg)
- Body fat percentage dropped by 0.7%.
- Waist size shrank by 0.5 inches (1.4 cm)
- Triglyceride levels dropped by 26%.
What altered in individuals who consumed 2 tablespoons (30 ml) of vinegar daily was as follows:
- Loss of weight: 3.7 pounds (1.7 kg)
- Body fat percentage dropped by 0.9%.
- Reduced waist size by 0.75 inches (1.9 cm)
The placebo group’s waist circumference grew a little bit, and they actually gained 0.9 lbs (0.4 kg).
This study found that including 1 or 2 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar in your diet can aid in weight loss. Additionally, it can help you lose belly fat, lower your blood triglycerides, and lower your body fat percentage.
Several human studies have looked into the impact of vinegar on weight loss, and this is one of them. Although the study was pretty extensive and the findings are positive, more research is required.
The high-dose vinegar group also accumulated 10% less fat than the control group and 2% less fat than the low-dose vinegar group during a six-week research in mice fed a high-fat, high-calorie diet (7).
Summary Overweight individuals in one study lost weight and body fat by consuming 12 tablespoons (1530 ml) of apple cider vinegar every day for 12 weeks.
Apple cider vinegar also helps people lose weight and fat, among other advantages:
- Apple cider vinegar has been demonstrated to drastically reduce blood sugar and insulin levels after eating when taken with a high-carb diet (14, 15, 16, 17, 18).
- Enhances insulin sensitivity: According to one study, adding vinegar to a high-carb meal increased insulin sensitivity by 34% in persons with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes (19).
- Reduces fasting blood sugar: In a type 2 diabetes trial, participants who had apple cider vinegar along with a high-protein evening snack saw their fasting blood sugar drop by twice as much as those who didn’t (20).
- Improves PCOS symptoms: In a small research, 57% of women with PCOS who took vinegar for 90110 days regained ovulation, probably because their insulin sensitivity had increased (21).
- Lowers cholesterol: Research on diabetic and healthy rats and mice revealed that apple cider vinegar boosted “beneficial HDL cholesterol It also decreased “Triglycerides and harmful LDL cholesterol (22, 23, 24).
- vinegar may lower blood pressure by blocking the enzyme that causes blood vessels to contract, according to animal research (25, 26).
- Kills hazardous germs and viruses: Vinegar combats microorganisms like E. coli that can lead to food poisoning. In one study, vinegar lowered the prevalence of several bacteria and viruses by 90% and by 95%, respectively (27, 28).
Summary Consuming apple cider vinegar may improve cholesterol, blood sugar, insulin, and PCOS symptoms. Bacteria and viruses are also combated by vinegar.
Use it as a salad dressing by mixing it with olive oil is a simple technique. It tastes very good when combined with leafy greens, cucumbers, and tomatoes.
You may also mix it with water and consume it, or you can use it to pickle vegetables.
12 tablespoons (15-30 ml) of apple cider vinegar mixed with water per day is the recommended dosage for weight loss.
Because of the possibility for negative side effects at larger dosages, such as drug interactions or dental enamel erosion, taking more than this is not advised. Additionally, it’s suggested to test your tolerance with 1 teaspoon (5 ml) at first.
Take no more than 1 tablespoon (15 ml) at a time because ingesting more may make you feel sick.
Because undiluted vinegar can burn the lining of your mouth and oesophagus, it’s crucial to dilute it with water.
Although ingesting apple cider vinegar in tablet form could appear advantageous, there are significant hazards involved. In one instance, an apple cider vinegar tablet that became stuck in a woman’s oesophagus caused throat burns (29).
Summary To maximise weight loss results, consume 12 tablespoons (1530 ml) of apple cider vinegar daily. Drink after mixing with water for optimal results.
Finally, consuming moderate amounts of apple cider vinegar seems to aid in weight loss and have a number of other health advantages.
Even though vinegars with lesser acetic acid contents might have less powerful effects, other varieties may offer comparable advantages.