Which Country Produces The Most Black Pepper?

With 270,192 tonnes or 36% of the global total produced in 2020, Vietnam was the world’s top producer and exporter of black peppercorns (table). [15] Brazil, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, China, and Malaysia were other significant producers. Annual variations in pepper production are caused by crop management, disease, and weather. [16] [17]

Twenty percent of all spice imports are peppercorns, making them one of the most trafficked spices in the world.


Which country produces the most pepper?

One of the earliest spices to be used in India is pepper, which is thought to have come from the Indian subcontinent. It has the scientific name Piper nigrum. One of the earliest goods to be traded between nations is reputedly pepper. In addition to India, Brazil, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam also grow pepper.

economic significance

Dried ripe berries are ground into a powder or used whole as a culinary spice.

Piperazine, a drug used for therapeutic purposes, is made from essential oils and oleoresins derived from black pepper.

A perennial crop with a lifespan of about 40 years is pepper. After 2 to 5 years after planting, the berries begin to be produced. It needs hot, muggy conditions with steady rain. Pepper is cultivated as a mixed crop since it requires partial shade to thrive.

In the last ten years, the production of peppers worldwide has been constant at 3.5 million tons. Vietnam produces the most pepper in the world, contributing around 35% of the overall production, followed by India and Indonesia, each contributing about 16%.

Only Vietnam has seen an increase in production during the past ten years; all other producing nations have seen either a decline or a stasis in output. From 6.5 lakh tons in 2003 to roughly 4.3 lakh tons in 2012, production in India has similarly been progressively falling.

The top four pepper exporters worldwide are Vietnam, Indonesia, Brazil, and India, which together account for over half of all pepper exports globally. However, Malaysia and China are the next two biggest importers of pepper, behind India and Indonesia.

India is the origin of many spices, but during the past ten years, both output and use of pepper have progressively decreased. Production decreased from roughly 90 000 tons in 2005-2006 to about 42 000 tons in 2011-2012. Furthermore, it is anticipated to fall below 40.000 tons in 2013–2014.

In addition to production, pepper consumption has significantly decreased during the previous ten years. According to data released by the International Pepper Community, domestic use of pepper decreased from more than 60 million tons in the early 2000s to roughly 42,500 tons in 2011–12.

The southern states of India produce the majority of the country’s pepper. India’s top pepper-producing state, Kerala, has seen a steady fall in production since the late 2000s. From roughly 45 thousand tons in the middle of the 2000s to about 16 thousand tons in 2011–12, it has progressively decreased. However, output from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka has been gradually increasing at the same time. Nevertheless, over the previous ten years, the nation’s overall production has drastically decreased.

Where is black pepper primarily grown?

In the typical home in North America, the black pepper occupies a special place. Black pepper, after all, is boldly displayed in shakers and grinders on the kitchen counter or—the holiest of all places—the dining table in virtually every house and establishment, in contrast to other spices, which are hidden away in dark cabinets. It is the only spice that can be found in almost every cuisine.

What exactly is black pepper and where does it come from?

What is Black Pepper? – Peppercorns are the ripe fruits of a Piperaceae family blooming plant. Where the cylindrical clusters of ripening berries are, the green, broad-leaved vines extend lengthy tendrils. The tiny fruits have a thin skin, little actual fruit inside, and one big seed. Depending on the type and strength of pepper wanted, the fruits are selected at various stages of maturity and processed accordingly.

What source does it have? – Although the vine is indigenous to India, it is spread over almost all tropical areas. Approximately 35% of the world’s supply of black pepper is currently produced and exported by Vietnam, which is followed by India, Brazil, China, and Sri Lanka. Pepper is the most traded spice in the world, accounting for 20% of all spice trade and used in almost every type of cuisine imaginable. In actuality, the annual value of the black pepper trade is in the billions!

Given that this pungent little spice has been adored for hundreds of years, it shouldn’t come as a huge surprise. Its main use for a very long time was as medicine. Ramses the Great’s body had peppercorns inserted in the nostrils to help keep the body clean), and it was even used to preserve mummies. Many people also believed that the spice could treat insomnia and toothaches.

Greeks and Romans of antiquity adored pepper. In fact, black pepper is used in 80% of the recipes in the ancient Roman cookbook Apicius, which was composed in 4 AD.

Many explorers, like Christopher Columbus and Vasco de Gama, set out in search of a quicker way to India in order to more swiftly obtain black pepper for the spice-hungry European markets because of this desire.

Where does black pepper originate?

Black pepper (Piper nigrum), usually known as pepper, is a perennial climbing vine in the Piperaceae family that produces a spicy condiment with a strong flavor. One of the earliest spices known is black pepper, which is a native of the Indian Malabar Coast. Pepper, a common seasoning used all over the world, also has a small amount of medical applications as a carminative (to reduce flatulence) and as a stimulant of gastric secretions.

Early on in human history, pepper was widely planted in Southeast Asia’s tropical regions, where it rose to prominence as a seasoning. Pepper developed as a significant overland commerce good between India and Europe and frequently served as a means of exchange; in ancient Greece and Rome, tributes were assessed in pepper. The principal distributors in Europe during the Middle Ages were the Venetians and the Genoese, and their near-monopoly on the trade sparked efforts to find an eastern sea route. The plant has been imported into tropical regions of Africa and the Western Hemisphere and is commonly grown in Indonesia.

Which country exports black pepper the most today?

The average pepper productivity in the producing nations from 2010 to 20 had been variable; it showed an upward trend in 2011 and 2012 but a downward trend in the following two years. The average productivity did, however, resume its upward trajectory in 2017 and 2018, increasing by 20% and 19%, respectively, according to Lien.

She was the featured speaker at the international conference on spices organized by the Indian Society for Spices. Her topic was Global Production and Trade ScenarioBlack Pepper.

With 3,740 per hectare in 2012, Cambodia had the highest yield in 11 years. In producing countries, the average productivity was expected to be 1,594 kg per hectare in 2020, up 30% or 365 kg per hectare from 2010.

The average annual increase in pepper exports from the nations that produce it from 2010 to 20 was 6%, while the largest increase—19%—was recorded in 2017. With 285,292 tonnes, Vietnam supplied 59% of the world’s pepper exports in 2020. Brazil came in second with 89,756 tonnes, followed by Indonesia with 11%. (51,718 tonnes). 15,924 tons were exported by India.

What type of black pepper is the greatest in the world?

Then there are the black peppercorns from Tellicherry, which are frequently hailed as the greatest in the world. Tellicherry peppercorns are distinguished by two features. They are firstly cultivated in India. Second, Tellicherry peppercorns have a diameter of 4 millimeters or greater.

Who imports black pepper and where?

HS CODE: 090411 (includes Black Pepper). • The market for black pepper is expected to reach a value of approximately US$ 5.7 billion by the end of 2024, expanding at a CAGR of 6.1% from its current estimated value of US$ 3.7 billion. • It is difficult for the supply of pepper to keep up with the rising demand for it in a variety of industries, including cosmetics, baking and confectionery goods, essential oils, etc. • India’s pepper exports dropped to 16,840 tonnes in 2018, the lowest level in recent memory, down about 35% from 2016 levels. • India must immediately increase its level of competitiveness in order to counter the formidable threat posed by exporters like Vietnam, Indonesia, and Brazil.

The most important and widely used spice in the world, black pepper is also known as the King of Spices or even Black Gold and holds a special and unique place in the culinary world. Kerala, which accounts for the majority of the country’s land under cultivation and output for the crop, is where black pepper originated in India.

The top countries importing black pepper globally are the US, UK, Germany, India, Vietnam, Netherlands, France, Egypt, and Japan. Up until the late 19th century, India was the world’s largest producer of pepper, but it eventually fell behind countries like Vietnam, Indonesia, and Brazil. India’s top export markets include the US, UK, Sweden, Italy, Germany, France, and the Netherlands.

Exports are now more profitable because the existing supply cannot keep up with the demand on the world market. On the other hand, this has encouraged some nations to concentrate on exporting black pepper by expanding the area, production, and yield. The growing demand from Far Eastern nations, who have started using more pepper in cooking, has had a significant impact on the world market for black pepper. The pepper market is being directly impacted by expansion in the cosmetics sector. Black pepper is frequently used as an ingredient in skin care products because of its antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics.

In comparison to other seasonings, black pepper is also one of the healthiest spices. The market for black pepper is expanding due to the increasing use of the spice in baked goods and confectionery items including cakes, chocolates, and snacks. For instance, rosemary bread, garlic bread, and other bakery goods all use black pepper. As well as developing new products, manufacturers are concentrating on scents, essential oils, and pepper spray. They are also concentrating on creative packaging for the black pepper powder because it can command greater costs.

Unfortunately, the imbalance between supply and demand has proven to be a significant barrier in this sector. This is mostly caused by widespread, severe crop losses, particularly in India and Brazil. The reduction in black pepper yield has been mainly attributed to abrupt weather shifts and untimely rains.

This table shows that from 2011 to 2018, the economies of Brazil, France, Germany, and Sri Lanka all achieved positive exponential growth rates. But altogether, from 2017 to 2018, there was a dramatic decline in the exports of pepper, especially black pepper. For that time period, India also saw a dip in pepper exports worth US$18.1 million, but what is more concerning is the ongoing decline in exports of this product, especially after 2015.

In actuality, since 2011, India’s exports of pepper, especially black pepper, have dropped by an exponential rate of 10.4%. Additionally, India’s export quantum for 2017 and 2018 is lower compared to 2015 and 2016 in terms of quantity. This demonstrates unequivocally that our methods are inferior to those of Vietnam, Brazil, and Indonesia.

India’s pepper exports fell to 16,840 tonnes in 2018, the lowest level in recent memory, down about 35% from 2016. The Spices Board reports that in 2018–19, export shipments decreased by nearly 25% year over year in the nine months leading up to December 2018. The majority of the shipments coming out of India are imports with value-added exports, primarily from Vietnam. More specifically, Vietnam is selling the product for US$ 2,800 per tonne, considerably less than the Indian variety’s US$ 6,000 per tonne asking price.

As producers quickly create new sorts of spices and blends to broaden their product offerings, the demand for black pepper for primary usage is rising. Due to the fact that Vietnam, Indonesia, and India all have their own production and manufacturing facilities and actively work to produce high-quality black pepper and essential oils, the demand for whole black pepper is higher in the Asian region.

Between 2019 and 2024, the market segment is anticipated to generate an absolute business potential worth about US$ 900 million. The only effective strategy to protect the environment and sustain the ecology is through organic farming and production. For farmers, it is a financially viable option because organic products will sell for more money at lower production costs, which is also supported by the agri-export strategy.

Due to its extensive use in food as well as other products like pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, pepper has grown in value on the global market. The export of processed goods from the nation has a promising future because it is anticipated to increase the sector’s foreign exchange revenues.

Black pepper was created by who?

Prior to the Common Era, Arab traders in the Middle East dominated and operated the trade in luxury goods along the Silk Road, a crucial commercial route connecting Asia with the Middle East, other regions of North Africa, and Europe. The Romans finally entered the market after this. Although black pepper is mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman texts, it wasn’t until Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the spice on the shores of Calicut (modern-day Kozhikode), India, in the late 15th century that the spice gained widespread popularity. Because the spice was so plentiful, it ultimately led to Portuguese dominance of the region.

The Greeks used black pepper to counteract the effects of hemlock—the same poison that killed Socrates—as well as a variety of illnesses like hemorrhoids, diarrhea, and other digestive issues. Black pepper also possessed nutritional qualities that made it popular with traders. As a result of the spice’s rising value as a result of its rising demand, people in some regions of the world used it to pay for dowries, taxes, and rent. Pepper was so well-liked that it was given the names “black gold” and “lord of spices.”

Chef Regi Mathew of Kappa Chappa Kandhari, a restaurant in Bengaluru, India, claimed that black pepper is still a very important ingredient in South Indian cuisine, particularly in Kerala, and is used in many stews, roasts, and rasam dishes, even though it isn’t as popular as it once was.

He includes it even in his garam masala (many regional iterations of the spice blend do not use black pepper). According to Mathew, the plants flourish in Kerala’s humid environment and abundant rainfall, and the best black pepper is found in the state’s Wayanad area. To preserve the flavors, he prefers to add black pepper, either whole or ground, at the very end of the cooking process.

While black pepper is very popular in South and Southeast Asia as well as Europe, it didn’t leave as much of an impression in East Asia (curiously, white pepper, a berry of the same plant but having undergone different processing, is quite common in culinary traditions of the area, particularly in China). The Four Seasons in Bengaluru’s Asian Chef de Cuisine, Chef Leong Then, informed me that black pepper does have a place in Chinese cuisine despite its sparse use. Although it isn’t overtly hot, it definitely has that bite and improves any food, particularly a stir-fry.